Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD)

Somatic Symptom Disorder (SSD) is the extreme focus on physical symptoms to the point of emotional distress. This occurs when an individual feels any sort of physical pain or weakness and believes their symptoms to be worse than they actually are. They could still have a legitimate medical diagnosis, however, they might react to it in a way generally classified as excessive or extreme. These individuals do not mean to fake any illness, they truly believe that they are sick. 



Symptoms of Somatic Symptom Disorder can be categorized in one of two different ways: there are the physical symptoms one experiences and their cognitive and behavioural reactions towards them. The most significant marker of SSD is the way an individual interprets their symptoms rather than what the actual symptoms are. 

✽ Physical Symptoms

  • Specific and localized pain
  • General tiredness and fatigue
  • Symptoms may or may not be related to a specific illness

✽ Cognitive and Behavioural Symptoms 

  • Constantly worrying about potential illnesses
  • Viewing normal physical symptoms as sign of illness
  • Believing that medical evaluation is not accurate 
  • Repeatedly checking your body for abornamilties
  • Having a more severe reaction than what is expected
  • Spending excessive time and energy on health concerns



Typically once an individual's starts feeling discomfort, they will consult with a physician first. When the physician informs them that there is no serious physical illness, the individual may not accept the diagnosis as they believe their condition to be life threatening.

If this behaviour persists, then the physician might refer the individual to a mental health professional. Because of the nature of the disorder, individuals find it very difficult to accept they have no serious illness; however treatments such as psychotherapy and medication have been known to be very helpful. 


Causes and Risk Factors

There is no direct cause for Somatic Symptoms Disorder. However, it may be linked to genetic or biological factors. It is also possible that this disorder could be a learnt behaviour in that individuals are exposed to early on in life, whereby those around them reacted excessively to physical symptoms, leading them to emulate this behaviour. Risk factors for this disorder include having a negative mindset and underlying psychological problems such as anxiety and depression.